Initially, the device of the sewing machine parts was developed in such a way that it could independently perform work, thereby replacing the person. This invention has greatly facilitated the work of a seamstress and increases its productivity. The work scheme allows even an absolute beginner, who never had a needle in his hands, to sew straight and high-quality stitches. The latest generation of devices not only sews in a simple way, but they are also able to create patterns and embroidery. Advances in modern sewing machine parts technology are amazing, but the very first algorithm developed many years ago still lies at the heart of the principle of operation of each sewing machine.
The scheme of the sewing machine
There are basic parts of the sewing machine, without which no unit can do:
- sewing platform;
- line selection wheel;
- sleeve stand
- receiver (reverse)
- needle holder;
- needle plate;
- lever for raising and lowering the presser foot.
But these are the details sewing machine parts that are visible during a surface inspection – they are a small fraction of the mechanism hidden under the body. Inside there is a sophisticated system to operate the shuttle. We can say that the operation of the sewing machine is entirely based on the shuttle device. For an unprepared person, the diagram of the details of a conventional sewing machine may seem complicated and confusing, but everything becomes clear if you look a little.
The bobbin sewing machine parts are the most noticeable detail with which the tailor constantly interacts. It is located behind the retractable panel under the needle. To remove the bobbin from the slot, pull it toward you and slightly up. This way you bend off a small grip and free the element.
A bobbin is needed to supply threads that are wound from the main spool before work. This happens automatically – the thread from the spool is threaded into a special bobbin hole. After that, the part is placed in a nest, and the spool of thread is fixed to the machine body. When the flywheel is activated, the bobbin rotates, which winds the thread on its axis, while the spool of thread also rotates.
To tension the thread during operation, the structure of the bobbin includes a small screw. Properly set settings exclude the possibility of skipping the upper and lower stitches. A tailor can sew without being distracted by constant quality checks. Carefully check sewing machine parts the thread before starting work, its excessive tension causes constant breaks.
A small part, the so-called nose, is designed to ensure the reel against accidental loss of the bobbin. It is mounted on a moving panel, which is pressed by a spring mechanism from the sleeve body. If everything works as intended, then the system does not crash. As long as this part is in the correct position, the bobbin is firmly fixed in the sewing machine parts and cannot be pulled out. To perform reassembly, bend the spout and, holding it in this position, insert the bobbin into place.
When studying the case on a sewing machine, you can find an oblong ledge. Its task is to prevent the rotation of the coil with a bobbin or shuttle drive.
Sewing shuttle is a key structural element of the sewing machine parts equipment. The quality of the stitch depends on the working condition of the mechanism and the correct settings for interacting with the sewing needle. Problems in this knot cause thread breakage, looping, skipping stitches, and other troubles. If everything is configured correctly, the line is smooth, without sections of clipping.
The quality of sewing machine parts is significantly affected by the condition of the surface of the shuttle. There should be no chips, cracks, rust, scratches, oil residues, or dirt. All this prevents the uniform movement of the thread, as a result of which there are moments of stretching of the thread, the line is ugly – with a noticeably weak stretch of the stitch.
The spent consumable has to be replaced. When finding a suitable replacement part, there may be difficulties associated with the types of shuttle mechanisms for the sewing machine parts equipment. The buyer should clearly understand which shuttle is suitable for his model of machine.
The vertical classic shuttle was invented by I. Singer in 1851. The design is a cap with a special groove, into which a bobbin with thread is inserted. During operation, the shuttle moves both vertically and horizontally, hence another name – swinging. In a cyclic movement, the sewing machine parts remove the thread from the needle, transfers it to the position necessary for creating the loop and return to its original position. This type of shuttle was used on Soviet-made cars Chaika, Podolsk, and models of German brands Veritas and Singer of past years. Today it can be found on budget mechanisms.
The horizontal type of shuttle is an invention of the 20th century. The mechanism is widespread; it is used in most household sewing machine parts currently manufactured. The main advantages are the ease of installation of the bobbin, the absence of friction, and the ability to control the amount of thread through the transparent plastic cover of the part. Two full turns of the shuttle form a stitch.
The best selection and delivery of sewing with an industrial sewing equipment
The vertical rotating (rotational) shuttle is distinguished by rotational movements around its axis. A bobbin with thread is inserted inside the rotating part. The rotation speed of the sewing machine parts nodal element reaches about 900 rpm. The consumable is distinguished by the reliability of the design, optimal distance relative to the needle. The rotation shuttle is installed in premium models and professional sewing equipment.
Sewing machine operation
- How does the sewing machine work, and what forces drive its internal processes? The whole system is based on the simplest principle based on a given needle sewing machine parts Grabbing the upper thread with her, she throws it down. Then it is picked up by a shuttle ready for this and intertwines the lower one with the upper thread.
- The simplest movement provides the basis for such complex manipulations as zigzag seams and even patterned embroidery.
- Manufacturers are improving their models. Today, there are already units with a special addition in the form of a side needle for processing the edges of matter, but finding them in simple stores is not easy.
- The inner part of the housing conceals a drive that is driven manually (in mechanical machines) or by means of an electric motor (in electromechanical devices). The engine through the connecting rod starts the rotation of the other three shafts. If you go into details, we can say that the system includes one intermediate axis, which transmits a rotational impulse to the three described shafts.
- This system is designed for a long period of use sewing machine parts and is considered quite durable. For applying lubricants to the moving parts, openings are provided in the housing into which the nipple can easily pass.
- In more advanced models, a pedal is provided, when you press the foot on which all the mechanisms are set in motion. It is much more convenient to use, as it provides freedom of hands. Of course, modern designers have improved this system, turning the pedal from mechanical to electric.
Speaking about how a home sewing machine parts work, you cannot omit the description of the device designed for drawing matter. This invention, revolutionary for its time, made it possible to set the desired length of stitches, and also relieved the tailors of the obligation to monitor the progress of the flap.
Everything happens as follows:
- at the first stage, the main shaft passes through the central part, which connects to the flywheel axis through the connecting rod;
- in the lateral parts, there are two rods, with the synchronous rotation of which the pulling mechanism comes into motion.
The first is equipped with the sewing machine parts, which experts call each other “Dovetail”. For a simple person, it looks more like a key. This element moves back and forth in the direction of the fabric.
The second axis provides a cam, which is located in the space of the “dovetail”. Its main function is the ascent and descent of this part. The final result of all movements of the above mechanisms is the operation of the sewing machine parts; the part in the form of a “dovetail” drives the lingering teeth. Having received an impulse, the teeth carry out their steps, scrolling in place.
All manipulations to adjust the stitch length are carried out by means of a rotary lever. A very small detail is attached to the axis of the caudate key. When turning the lever, the tails change their configuration from the initial position, which leads to a change in the stitch length in the stitch.
This manipulation is carried out using a special screw located above the needle holder. Upper thread tension is important to the sewing machine parts indicator that controls the quality of the seam. Near the needle holder, there is a special eye that moves during operation and does not allow the stretched thread to loosen or sag when the needle goes up. Without this small detail, all the work of the sewing machine would come to naught.
At the end of the description, a few words should be said about the winding device. As a rule, not far from the flywheel for winding is a small pinch wheel with a shaft equipped with a notch.
On the panel located under sewing machine parts, there is an eyelet with another small wheel. The spool is mounted on a vertical stand, and from it, the thread is passed over the table to be wound on a bobbin. To ensure proper operation, the pinch wheel is gently pressed with a finger, after which the rotation begins, transmitted from the drive of the sewing machine.
Intensive use of the sewing machine parts inevitably leads to wear of consumables, resulting in malfunctions. Some problems can be solved independently; in case of serious malfunctions, the participation of the master will be required.
Methods for resolving frequently occurring faults are as follows.
- If there are gaps in the line, then you should adjust the looper, check the height of the needle.
- If the stitch is unsatisfactory, the interaction of the shuttle with the plates must be adjusted.
- The machine makes unusual sounds and does not form stitches – this is a symptom of mechanical damage to the shuttle. The malfunction is eliminated by replacing the failed part.
- If the stitch turns out to be inaccurate, then you need to try to adjust the uniform tension of both threads.
- When winding the upper thread is observed, it is urgent to check the correct installation of the sewing machine parts bobbin in the hook. Slowness is fraught with a breakdown of the machine.
To minimize the appearance of common problems when sewing, experts give the following tips:
- lubrication of mechanisms once every six months;
- high-quality sewing machine parts special products should be used for lubrication;
- the lubrication channels should be kept clean;
- cleaning the surface of the machine after use;
- carry out routine inspection and cleaning of the shuttle and bobbin at least 1 time per month;
- if there are traces of contact with threads on the hook, sand the surface with a fine emery cloth;
- Do not store the machine for a long time without a cover;
- under the lowered foot before putting on the cover you need to put a piece of fabric, you should also wipe the surface to remove all unnecessary;
- exclude during storage of the device creases and bends of the power cable;
- the flywheel should always be rotated in the direction “towards you”;
- while the sewing machine parts are in operation, do not overstretch the material, lower the needle shaft onto an empty plate, and scribble with the tab raised.